For most fruit trees in the fall, how to fertilize in the fall can meet the physiological needs of the crop.
ã€€ã€€ 1. The NPK in organic fertilizer can not fully satisfy the growth of fruit trees . More than 90 % of the organic fertilizers used in the current orchard are farmyard manure. These fertilizers contain a large amount of NPK and a certain amount of medium elements ( calcium and magnesium ) . Trace elements ( iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper, etc. ) and biologically active substances not only provide comprehensive nutrition for fruit trees, promote their growth, but also have long fertilizer effects, which can increase and update soil organic matter, promote microbial reproduction, and enhance soil water retention. Fertilizer and fertilizing capacity. However, due to the shortage of base fertilizer sources, its application rate is limited. According to relevant information, the main apple producing area in Shaanxi is only 83 . 1 % of the orchards are applied with organic fertilizers, 42 % of which are not fertilized, and the average amount per 667 m2 is only 1 630 kg , which is far from the actual standard of 3 000 kg , which can not satisfy the nutrients in the soil. The need to produce high-grade fruit and maintain a robust tree. More importantly, fruit trees need a balanced supply of nutrients. Although the nutrients in organic fertilizers are very rich, the proportion and content of NPK cannot fully satisfy the growth requirements of fruit trees. Especially in the process of composting of organic fertilizer, the nitrogen content will further decrease. If the organic fertilizer is applied to meet the nitrogen requirement, phosphorus and potassium will be excessive, causing waste; if phosphorus and potassium meet the fruit tree Need, nitrogen fertilizer is not enough. Therefore, the simple application of organic fertilizer can not meet the demand for NPK at the same time, and must be applied in combination with chemical fertilizer.
ã€€ã€€ 2 , the application of unfertilized organic fertilizer to the fruit tree is harmful 1) burn root system. Most of the farmyard manure comes from animal manure and is rich in organic matter. When these organic fertilizers are not maturized, their nutrient status is slow-acting and cannot be directly absorbed and utilized by the roots of fruit trees. If they are applied, in the process of underground decomposing, due to the strengthening of denitrification, heat is easily generated to cause root burns ( Commonly known as " burning roots ") , causing root rot.
ã€€ã€€ 2) The nutrient release is not synchronized with the tree body. After applying the unfertilized organic fertilizer in autumn, the soil temperature is low in autumn and winter. In addition to mixing with the orchard soil layer, it takes a long time for these organic fertilizers to mature in the ground. According to the author 's excavation survey of the orchard that did not apply organic fertilizer three years ago, it was found that some of the manure was still in its original state. In the spring of the second year, although the ground temperature has gone up, the general rains in the main apple producing areas in northern China are less than normal, and the rate of application of organic fertilizers is still very slow. At this time, the trees need a lot of nutrients to supply the fruiting results of the trees. The limited organic nutrients released by the slow-to-ferment organic fertilizer simply cannot meet the needs of the tree. At the same time, in the process of decomposing, the microorganisms also consume some of the original nutrients ( such as nitrogen fertilizer ) in the roots of the fruit trees , and the trees often show malnutrition. After entering the summer and autumn of the second year, with the increase of rainfall, the ground temperature rises rapidly. The rate of decomposing organic fertilizer is obviously accelerated in the previous year, releasing more organic nutrients that can be absorbed by the tree, leading to the tree body. The growth is accelerated, a large number of strips are produced, the fruit is poorly colored, the vegetative growth is excessive, and the flower bud differentiation ability is poor, so that a large amount of organic nutrients are wasted and the nutrient supply of the tree is imbalanced.
ã€€ã€€ 3) It is easy to attract pests that are underground and winter. Unfertilized organic fertilizer has a large amount of animal organic matter, so it is an ideal wintering place for many fruit tree pests. It is especially easy to attract all kinds of chafers ( è›´èž¬ ) , peach small heartworms, ruler, boat-shaped caterpillars, pear flower nets, etc. It is extremely unfavorable for pest control in the coming year.
ã€€ã€€ 3. When the organic fertilizer is piled up and used in the unfertilized organic fertilizer, the composting site should be selected in the place of leeward, sunny, and high-lying areas, and the agricultural film or cement floor should be placed on the compost floor. The livestock manure cake is broken, the straw is crushed to less than 5 cm for rolling, and about 3 % of superphosphate and manure are mixed and mixed . The addition of superphosphate is mainly to prevent the loss of nitrogen in organic fertilizers and to increase the activity of microorganisms. After the pile is completed, the surface is flattened with a spade, covered with mud for about 10 cm or covered with agricultural film, and the surrounding is pressed tightly to create an oxygen-deficient environment, so that it can be decomposed as soon as possible. The farmyard can be fermented in about 60 days. When the color of the organic fertilizer changes from the original gray to purple and black, the texture is loose and there is a foul smell, it means that it has been decomposed and should be applied to the orchard in time. When fully fermented organic fertilizer is applied to the orchard, the outer part of the canopy should be selected for vertical projection, and the fertilization ditch with a width of 30 to 40 cm and a depth of 30 to 40 cm should be excavated , and the organic fertilizer and the appropriate fertilizer ( nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer ) and topsoil After mixing evenly, put it into the bottom of the fertilization ditch, and finally cover it with the bottom layer of the soil that has been turned out, or carry out the whole garden application, and turn over the soil layer after the application.
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