Principle and classification of CNC wire cutting machine

CNC wire-cutting machine tools are processed by the principle of high-energy-density spark discharge ablation. It belongs to the special processing category, and it can only process conductive materials. The process of EDM CNC wire cutting processing mainly includes the following three parts:

(1) When the CNC wire-cutting machine is machining, a DC pulse voltage of 20KHz and 150v is applied between the cutting tool (copper wire or molybdenum wire) and the workpiece. Pulse discharge between the wire and the workpiece. When the distance between the tool and the workpiece is close enough (about 0.01mm), the voltage breaks down the cooling cutting medium and discharges evenly over the entire length of the cutting tool and the workpiece. The high-energy density EDM can reach an instantaneous temperature of 7000 °C. Or higher, the high temperature causes the metal to be cut to vaporize instantaneously, and the natural metal oxide is melted in the cutting fluid and carried out by the moving cutting tool.

(2) The wire moves in the axial direction (vertical or Z direction).


(3) The workpiece is numerically controlled in the X and Y planes with respect to the wire.


CNC wire-cutting machines are divided into two types: fast and slow. The molybdenum wire is used as a machining tool for the fast wire machine position, and the molybdenum wire reciprocates rapidly during use. The molybdenum wire can move at speeds above 10 m/s during operation. Due to its high speed of movement, the movement accuracy and service life of the roller supporting the molybdenum wire movement are high. At the same time, when the molybdenum wire moves at high speed, due to various physical factors, such as vibration of the supporting roller and unbalanced tension caused by partial explosion of the electric spark during processing, the molybdenum wire in the cutting region may be radially vibrated. It is difficult to ensure the correct trajectory of the movement, especially in the corners of the cavity, which can easily cause machining defects. Therefore, the processing precision of the wire cutting is often low, and it is often used for machining parts with lower precision requirements. The function of the fast wire CNC cutting machine is relatively simple, and the price makes it. The diameter of molybdenum wire commonly used in fast wire cutting machine tools is 0.15mm, 0.18mm, etc. Due to the influence of the current capacity of molybdenum wire (3A ~ 6A), the processing efficiency of the fast wire cutting machine is slightly lower. CNC wire-cutting wire-cutting machine The wire-cutting machine uses precision-drawn copper wire as a cutting tool. The speed of copper wire in machining is only 20mm/s, which is much lower than that of fast-cut wire cutting machine. The lines are used once. Due to the use of high-precision bearings to support the copper wire drive roller, the linear motion of the copper wire is highly accurate. The one-time use of the copper wire tool completely avoids the influence of the diameter reduction of the copper wire on the machining accuracy caused by the spark ablation, and can ensure a relatively high machining precision. By performing the "secondary processing" or "multiple processing" method in the ionized water, the energy control system of the spark discharge can be used to greatly improve the straightness and surface quality of the workpiece. The wire diameter of the wire cutting machine can reach 0.3mm or higher, and it can pass the high frequency current of 10A or more. The metal removal rate per unit time is much higher than that of the fast wire cutting machine.

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